- 1 Carbon fiber or rather Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
G10 Vs Carbon Fiber used in cutlery, let’s make some considerations.
The G-10 together with the Micarta is a widely used material for the construction of knife handles.
Sold in pairs of blocks of various sizes and thickness ranging from 5 mm to 8 mm at a cost of less than 15 euros.
They are the most used and appreciated materials for the construction of handles in a knife for two main factors:
- the reasonable cost,
- it’s “simple” to work with and
- remarkable robustness.
G-10 is a high-pressure fiberglass laminate, and is part of the materials so-called composite.
It is created by stacking multiple layers of glass fabric , soaked in epoxy resin, and compressing the resulting material under heat until the epoxy resin polymerizes.
It is produced in flat slabs, a few millimeters thick but also thicker to generate the classic blocks at least 5 mm thick and of sufficient size to create a knife handle.
The G-10 is very similar to Micarta and carbon fiber laminates, except that glass fabric is used as a filling material.
attention!! in the professional nomenclature of “filler” and “matrix” in composite materials it can be somewhat counter intuitive when applied to fabrics soaked with resin.
G-10 is the hardest of fiberglass resin laminates and therefore the most commonly used and not to be confused with bachelite.
G-10 is favored for its high strength, low moisture absorption and high level of electrical insulation and chemical resistance.
These properties are maintained not only at room temperature but also in conditions of humidity or humidity.
It was first used as a substrate for printed circuit boards and its designation, G-10, derives from a national electrical manufacturers association standard for this purpose.
The decorative variations of the G-10 are produced in many colors and models and are particularly used to make handles for knives,handles for firearms and other tools.
These can be texturized (for grip), grained, polished or polished.
Its strength and low density make it useful for cutlery but also for many types and types of handicrafts.
The G-10 is generally safe to handle outside of extreme conditions.
The risks can arise from cutting or grinding the material which is something that shapes the handle of the knife and therefore it is essential to protect yourself with the correct masks and use an air intake and recirculation system.
Glass powder and epoxy resin contributes to respiratory disorders and increases the risk of developing lung disease so it is essential to use all protection systems if using these materials.
For any work of this type but not only with the G10, even with carbon fiber and woods that can be toxic, the working space must be properly ventilated and masks or respirators must be worn.
Epoxy resin is flammable and, once ignited, burns violently emitting poisonous gases.
Therefore similar materials such as FR-4 containing flame retardant additives have replaced the G-10 in many applications.
FR-4 replaced the G-10 in most consumer electronics.
Uses a flame retardant brominated epoxy resin.
G-3 is a material made of fiberglass and phenolic resin.
Unlike the G-10, it is not often used for the production of knives.
CDM, also known as “Durostone” (Röchling Group), is used in high temperature applications that require good machine, chemical and ESD workable properties.
Carbon fiber or rather Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Polymer-reinforced carbon fiber (English), polymer reinforced carbon fiber (From the British Commonwealth), or plastic reinforced carbon fiber, or reinforced thermoplastic carbon fiber ( CFRP, CRP , CFRTP , also known as carbon fiber, carbon composite, or carbon only), is a plastic reinforced with extremely durable and lightweight fibers that contains carbon fibers.
“Fiber” spelling is generally used outside the United States.
CFRPs can be expensive to produce, but they are commonly used wherever they are high the strength/weight ratio and stiffness (rigidity) are required, such as aerospace, ship superstructures, automobiles, civil engineering, sports equipment, and an increasing number of technical and consumer applications.
Binding polymer is often a thermo-hardening resin such as epoxy resin, but sometimes other thermo-hardening or thermoplastic polymers are used, such as polyester, vinyl or nylon.
The properties of the final CFRP product can be influenced by the type of additives introduced into the binding matrix (resin).
The most common additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used.
Carbon fiber is sometimes referred to as a polymer reinforced with graphite or polymer reinforced with graphite fiber (GFRP is less common, as it clashes with fiberglass reinforced polymer).
CFRP are composite materials.
In this case the composite consists of two parts: a matrix and a reinforcement.
In CFRP the reinforcement is made of carbon fiber, which provides its strength.
The matrix is usually a polymer resin, like an epoxy resin, to bind reinforcements together.
Since cfrp consists of two distinct elements, the properties of the material depend on these two elements.
Reinforcement gives cfrp its strength and rigidity, as measured by stress and elastic modulus respectively.
Unlike isotropic materials such as steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties.
The properties of CFRP depend on the arrangement of carbon fiber and the proportion of carbon fibers relative to polymer.
The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of composite materials using the properties of carbon fibers and polymer matrix can also be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics.
The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is regulated by the following mechanisms:
1) detachment between carbon fiber and polymer matrix,
2) fiber extraction and
3) delamination between CFRP plates.
Typical epoxy-based CFRPs show virtually no plasticity, with a deformation of less than 0.5%.
Although EPOXID RESIN CFRPs have high strength and an elastic modulus, fragile fracture mechanics presents unique challenges for engineers in fault detection as failure occurs catastrophically.
Therefore, recent efforts to strengthen CFRPs include modifying existing epoxy material and finding an alternative polymer matrix. U
Peek, which shows a greater order of magnitude with elastic modulus and similar tensile strength, is very promising. However, PEEK is much harder to work with and more expensive. 
Despite its high resistance/initial weight ratio, a design limit of cfrp is the lack of a definable fatigue limit.
This means, in theory, that the failure of the stress cycle cannot be ruled out.
While steel and many other structural metals and alloys have estimated fatigue or strength limits, the complex breakage modes of composites mean that cfrp fatigue breaking properties are difficult to predict and cons design.
As a result, when using CFRP for critical cyclic load applications, engineers may need to design with considerable resistance safety margins to provide adequate component reliability throughout its service life.
Environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs.
While CFRPs demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance, the effect of moisture at wide temperature ranges can lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of CFRPs, particularly the matrix-fiber interface.
Although the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the spread of moisture in the material, moisture plasticizes the polymer matrix.
This has led to significant changes in properties that are dominantly affected by the CFRP matrix as compression, interlaminar cutting, and impact properties.
The epoxy matrix used for engine fan blades is designed to be fuel-proof for airborne, lubrication and rainwater, and the outer paint on the composite parts is applied to minimize damage caused by ultraviolet light.
Carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. 
Carbon fiber reinforced plastics are very difficult to work with and cause significant tool wear.
Tool wear in CFRP machining depends on the orientation of the fiber and the machining conditions of the cutting process.
In order to reduce tool wear, various types of tools coated in the processing of CFRP and metal CFRP are used.
How to make carbon fiber
To make a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite artifact, two main elements are needed: carbon fiber, the structural material responsible for the mechanical properties of the artifact, and a resin that acts as a matrix, within which the carbon fiber filaments are immersed, and which is responsible for the cohesion of the fibers within the artifact.
The resulting composite material has similar and generally high mechanical characteristics (given by carbon fiber) and very low weights.
To produce carbon filaments, oxidation and thermal pyrolysis of organic long-chain molecules of different types are carried out. This starting material, in the form of thin filaments, undergoes a complex oxidation process in an inert atmosphere, at temperatures that can reach 2000°C.
The effect of heat triggers a series of chemical reactions, called graphite, the result of which is the elimination of most atoms other than carbon ones: organic molecules then turn into graphite (carbon at 92-96%).
Finally, the scratched organic chains merge, generating a single filament with very high mechanical properties.
The carbon fiber sheet at least 5 mm thick is what is needed for cutlery.
How carbon fiber composite is used
Applications in the industrial sector have been particularly successful with the production of and for converting and flexographic printing rollers.
Here the growing demands of the industry to increase the working speed of converting and printing machines have been answered with the use of these rollers, using Wrapping technology.
It is the most valuable processing mode and that allows the best performance and maximum customization of the product.
The process consists in applying on molds a sequence, the result of design and experience, of Prepreg sheets (carbon fiber carefully impregnated with resin), with a mode that allows different orientations, in order to maximize the structural efficiency of the artifact.
Pros and cons of carbon fiber
Among the advantages of the material are
- high mechanical strength
- the low density
- high thermal insulation
- resistance to temperature changes
- fireproof behavior.
Among the disadvantages is the fact that the material has a marked anisotropy, i.e. its mechanical characteristics have a privileged direction.
But between the G10 and carbon fiber? Is that the best?
The G10, which is mainly used for tactical knives and survival, with better
qualities than micarta,
still remains the G10 lower than carbon fiber.
The G10 is a low price material and is one of the most used options for combat knives.
Benefits of the G10:
- Virtually zero moisture absorption,
- High resistance,
- High hardness.
The G10 remains a good material that helps you keep costs down against carbon fiber and is to be applied beyond the aesthetic aspect on knives that can be exposed to weather and humid environments.
Today there are in a wide variety of colors and even with photosensitive effects to light to have a fluorescent effect in the dark.
It is a great material that I recommend you try but if you really want to give added value use carbon fiber.
Clearly it is my opinion but new materials such as fat carbon (always a composite material) that allow to have the characteristics of carbon fiber combined with very beautiful aesthetic effects that embellish the knife.
Go read the post, I have entered the link that you see highlighted!
Are you experience?
When working with these materials always use a mask or respirator, even in cleaning work, even if it is not toxic, it is recommended to avoid breathing particles.
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